Thursday, September 29, 2016

Individual Interpretive Questions Go Here. From Mike

You can work on creating a number of different interpretive questions in your small groups. 

Each person in the class should post a good interpretive question to the blog, and focus that question on one of the stories or themes we have read to date.

Use the Comments feature on this post, so that all of our Interpretive questions are in one place.

Thanks,

Mike


exp. 4: making sense of the 60s by vik ball

     The Nation of Islam is a cult consisting of fringe Islam, black supremacy and antisemitism. Although they claim to be followers of Islam, they hold very little connection to the beliefs of mainstream Islam. Traditionally xenophobic and Black supremacist, to the point of naming all people of European descent "White Devils" and "potential humans". They also believe the Jew is responsible for most of the evil done in this world, and that a mad scientist named Yakuba created all other races from the Blackman through a special method of birth control.
In the 1930s, Wallace D. Fard opened the first NOI mosque in Detroit. Three years after he began teaching, he disappeared, passing the leadership of the NOI to Elijah Mohammad, who then proceeded to deify Mr. Fard, claiming he was God's physical return to the earth from Mecca.
It was under Elijah Mohammad that the Nation of Islam fully realized its distinctly non-Sunni Isalm beliefs. Under his leadership, the Nation of Islam became primarily a socio-political black activist and separatist group, guided and informed by the new religion. Elijah Mohammad taught that blacks were the first people, and were the original Muslims.
One of the most famous African American leaders (Malcom X) began his religious teachings as a Nation of Islam convert. He was responsible for popularizing the NOI in the 1950s. However, after visiting Mecca, Malcolm learned that the NOI had nothing to do with actual Islam and began practicing a mainstream version of the faith. He was later murdered by NOI members for speaking out against Elijah Mohammed in 1965.
After Elijah Mohammad's death in 1975, his son, Warith Deen Mohammad, brought the organization to a more mainstream Islamic position, which came to be known as the American Society of Muslims. Much later, Louis Farrakhan led a group of supporters who returned the Nation of Islam to more extremist positions, including extreme racism, and antisemitism.

Malcolm X Collecting Money for the Black Muslims, 1960
     In "The Dentist", O'Brien describes a story in which Curt Lemon's facade of toughness is shattered, with an unexpected ending. After the dentist visits, seemingly "tough guy" Lemon faints, and proceeds to mope afterwards, since his imagined persona is shattered. In order to remedy this, he has the dentist remove one of his teeth. This passage is a fascinating look into the personality that is Curt Lemon, and O'Brien excels at describing the actions that this disturbed individual takes.
     In "Sweetheart of The Song Tra Bong", a soldier brings his girlfriend to Vietnam, and as the story progresses, she undergoes drastic personality changes. This passage is an excellent character study, because as Rat Kiley describes the story, numerous details are left out, in favor of maintaining the linear progression. It is clear to see that the woman's change in demeanor and action are the sole focus here.

Regan Ross Exploration Four

Part 1: I found the documentary "Ain't Scared of Your Jails" very inspiring. What inspired me most is the bravery of the young students. They were willing to take beatings, go to jail, and be ridiculed publicly; they were there to make change happen and they were not going to take no for an answer. If I were in the same situation as them today, I don't know if I would be strong enough to do the same thing they did. One thing I will take away from the film is the power of non-violence because it is relevant in many situations, especially today with protests for the "Black Lives Matter" movement. I think that everyone could learn something from this film, including "Black Lives Matter" protesters. These civil rights movement leaders got what they wanted done without any violence, at least from themselves. I believe that one problem with today's protestors is that they are too quick to use violence to get their point across. This just causes a state of chaos for everyone involved.
  "We took our seats in a very orderly, peaceful fashion. We stayed there at the lunch counter studying and preparing our homework because we were denied service." This quote was said by John Lewis about the sit-ins in Nashville. He explains just how nonviolent the students were at the lunch counters. The sit-ins are really what put the civil movement in the eye of the public. Nonviolence was a huge part of this movement, and if the movement was not based on nonviolence, who knows what it would have turned into.
John Lewis was born in Alabama in 1940. He is considered one of the "Big Six" leaders of the civil rights movement. The some of the other six leaders are Martin Luther King Jr. and James Farmer the representative for CORE. John Lewis was the chairman of SNCC (Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee). Lewis was also part of the freedom rides. Today, Lewis 76 and is part of the US representative for Georgia.




Part 2: The short story I chose from the book was "Friends." One theme that stood out to me in this chapter was the soldier's ability to forgive each other. The two men had been in a huge fight and in the end, they both were hurt. By this chapter, the men had forgiven each other and they were better off now as friends than they were before. It doesn't happen very often for two people to be closer after such a huge fight. I think the writing was at its best when Strunk got a "wheelchair" injury and Jensen decided not to kill him even though they had made a promise to each other. The part I thought was important was that Jensen was relieved when Strunk died on his flight to the hospital. This showed how much he actually cared about Strunk. If Strunk had asked Jensen to kill him, would he?

The long story I chose from the book was "Sweetheart of Song Tra Bong." One idea that stood out to me is how easily and how much Mary Ann was able to change. She went to Vietnam a normal girl and while she was their she became a soldier who was thirsty for thrills. I think the writing was at its best on page 109 when Rat was explaining the feelings of war as a metaphor in the case of Mary Ann.  "For Mary Ann Bell, it seemed, Vietnam had the effect of a powerful drug: that mix of unnamed terror and unnamed pleasure that comes as the needle slips in and you know you're risking something." In this quote he attempting to make his audience realize why Mary Ann did what she did. This story brought up many questions. 1. Where did Mary Ann actually go? 2. Was Rat telling the whole truth about this story? I ask this because the story seems very unrealistic to me.

Exploration Four From John Link

In viewing "Ain't Scared of Your Jails" I observed a peculiar yet familiar theme through the documentary. The motivation of fear has a powerful presence throughout the the 60's time period. This fear of change was a major motivating factor for the large opposition that faced the civil rights movement. The fear of change and difference is an underlying fear most humans share. I believe with the rise of active protests the white communities of the south began to fear of the change that the protests were fighting for would change over 200 years of tradition in the south. This fear led to violent responses in some communities which ironically pushed the movement farther along. However the motivation of fear was not only present in the white communities but also with the black community and the protests who were fighting for change. Although trained in non-violence the threat of violence against them instilled fear within the protester. They used and overcame this fear to propel themselves forward in their beliefs.



Z. Alexander Looby was a well educated man originally from Antigua in the  British West Indies, he moved to the US in 1914. He attended several colleges and was a professor at Fisk University. In 1929 he began to practice law and became a strong local leader for the African-American civil rights movement. Most known for defending the SNCC students who participated in the sit ins local retaliatory whites dynamited his house. Miraculously, he and his wife survived with little to no harm despite the power of the blast. He continued to push for equal right especially after the Brown v. Board of Education Case. He passed away in 1972 the age of 73


In The Things They Carried by Tim O'Brien The authors describes many quick stories as well as a few longer ones in order to describe the scene as well as create a sort of gateway for the reader to develop an emotional connection. The short stories develop the scene so that the reader can understand the atmosphere, while the longer stories create the emotional connection.

Exploration Four by Naomi Hillman

What did I learn from Aint Scared of Your Jail? I learned about the experience of what African Americans had to deal with throughout the 1960s. It was kind of sad to me that they wanst allowed to go to a diner counter eat. Half the time the owner of the diners would take the money of African Americans and not even serve them. It felt weird to me to see how these people were treated during those times and compare them to how Im treated in todays society. I feel grateful that I am able to go to a restaurant/diner and be treated like a human being. Witnessing how these African Americans was being assaulted as the police was just sitting there and not even trying to help out these poor people was a little bit hard to watch. The job of a policeman is to protect and serve, all I seen in the film was pure hatred. All they were trying to do was sit down, enjoy the meal, and feel equal like everybody else and they were denied that based on the color of their skin. The buses were I am from are full of diversity, seeing how transportation was back in the 1960s was just awful. People of color was denied access of the means of transportation or they had to sit in the back of the bus. When a white man or woman came on the bus, and if an African American was sitting in the front, they had to get up and give up their seat. If they didnt, police actions was brought into the situation. When they wanted to get off the bus they had to leave out the back door. Im just glad I never had to deal with that situation on the buses in the present time. Im very lucky to not have to deal with the harsh times African Americans during the 1960s. One quote from the documentary that stood out to me was Ben West, I respect the fact that he wanted to have peace quiet and good order around Nashville. He said, Peace, quiet and good order will be maintained in our city to the best of our ability. Riots, melees and disturbances of the peace are against the interest of all our people and therefore cannot be permitted.
I looked up a women who was apart of the sit-ins name Diane Nash. Today Diane Nash is an American Civil Rights activist, and the leader & strategist of the Civil Rights Movement. Nash was born May 15th, 1938 in Chicago Illinois growing up as a Roman Catholic while attending parochial and public school. In 1956 she graduated from Hyde Park High School in Illinios and began her college career at Howard University in D.C before transfering to Fisk University in Nashville Tennessee. As a student in Nashville Nash witnessed southern racial segregation for the very first time. In 1959 Nash attended a nonviolent protest workshops. Later that year Nash protested exclusionary racial politics by participating in impromptu sit ins at downtown Nashville. Now today remains committed to the principles of nonviolence that have guided her throughout her life.


Part Two:  Enemies, the lack of an attempt by Jensen and Strunk to resolve conflict using peaceful dialogue demonstrates that social contracts have begun to break down. While Jensen assumes Strunk will inflict eye-for-an-eye revenge on him for breaking his nose, Strunk assumes Jensen was somewhat justified in his rash action and in the end Strunk feels that hes gotten what he deserved, since he did steal Jensens jackknife. Strunks acceptance of the matter and the relief Jensen takes in his exaggerated gesture of settling the score show that both men are willing to take responsibility for their actions. However, with the breakdown of the social code, each is taking responsibility out of guilt rather than integrity. The real question is did Jensen feel like he deserved what he got?



Exploration #4- Hunter Bayer

  


After discussing Ain't Scared of Your Jails, I thought about how from past documentaries about the civil movements in the 60's, I mostly saw the violent side of the protest. When I say the violent side, I refer to both the law enforcement and the black community side of the fights. This video fleshed out the more peaceful side of the protests, help shed light on how it was done. The one thing i will take away from this video, is how much of a difference some people can make by just sitting down at a reserved table and send a message through that action. 

Image result for rev ct vivian
Reverent C.T Vivian 



Reverent C.T Vivian played a large role in the movements within Nashville Tennessee during the 1960s. He helped form the systematic non-violent protests that led to Mayor Ben West to say as a man, he found racial discrimination to be morally wrong. Vivian became a member of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) and was one the first to ride on the "Freedom Rides.


The themes in the short chapter "Church" and in the long chapter "The Man I Killed", I found it interesting how the themes are very opposite of each other. In one chapter we have monks helping the soldiers, and in the other, we have soldiers shooting and mistreating civilians. The whole idea and story in these chapters contradicts on another since one side makes them look good when the other shows the lesser side of them. 

Exploration Four from Austin Craig

Ain't Scared of Your Jails is a definition of bizarre. As young adults in our current era, we do not often see bus bombings, public beatings, and a clear-cut division of North and South. One may argue that "police brutality" is existent when they fail to realize that, in most cases, officers are just doing their job. I've come to see that when one person thinks they're better than another, they will not hesitate to show what they think. How supposed superiority is shown is based on the person; will they be "blatant racists" or passive-aggressive?
"For generations, whites had taken for granted the second class status of the city's black residents. Now, the students were forcing people to decide whether segregation was right or wrong" (Ain't Scared of Your Jails)

John Edgar Hoover was the director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) at the time of the Civil Rights Movement. Hoover was out to take down the KKK, the Black Panthers, and Martin Luther King Jr. For MLKJ in particular, Hoover constantly surveyed him illegally, trying to find proof of "Communist influence or sexual deviance" (Biography.com). Hoover was a racist and was heavily criticized for his actions, but was still revered for his advancements.

Recognition for a "hero."

"The Dentist" stood out because Curt Lemon had a phobia for the dentist and was so embarrassed when he refused to see the dentist. Once he decided to see the captain, he was feeling better; a pulled tooth helped him. What I get from this is the small things make a difference no matter what you're doing or where you are. Small things like pulling a tooth can make someone's day.
"Sweetheart of the Song Tra Bong" is almost comical. Mark Fossie imports his girlfriend from the US for a visit and she gets into the war like another soldier. Only being deterred for a short time by Mark's proposal, she leaves the group he's in and joins the Green berets. Mark stops seeing her completely. This shows how strong women can be. Women weren't allowed to serve in Vietnam for combat, but just one comes over and does whatever she wants. The best part was when Mark was pretty much in disbelief.

Exploration 4 by Corey Peck

Part One:
What stood out to me most, or what I will take away from the film Ain't Scared of Your Jails is the very ending involving Frederick Leonard. This interview involved him telling the story about how he and other prisoners sang freedom songs and the guards threatened to take away there mattresses. After refusing to give up his mattress, the guards called in other inmates to forcefully take them away. A man nick-named "Pee Wee" was beating another man over the head to give up the mattress but Pee Wee started to cry. Leonard uses the example and quotes explaining, "This is going to hurt me more than it's going to hurt you." This is how Pee Wee felt. Due to this short story told by Leonard, it got me thinking why didn't the white guards forcefully try and take the mattress? Was it to try and break the "peaceful protest" and to turn the African Americans on each other? This short story is what stood out to me most and what will keep me wondering about the guards intentions.
         The topic I chose was the KKK. The KKK stands for the Ku Klux Klan. In June of 1964, the begging of "freedom summer" (southern blacks to vote) the KKK was more aggressive than ever. Attempts to murder active boycotters for the right to vote were in danger. The KKK was aiming for a man named Michael Schwerner. The KKK initially missed him but ended up killing other affiliates of him and eventually beat the affiliates and burned down their church where they had meetings. This is where the name "Mississippi Burning" came from. A few days after this event, Schwerner and two other men were murdered only to be found buried in a farm house. A little over a year later a few members of the KKK attempted to run MLK, Leroy Morton and Viola Luizzo off a road. While this happened the members shot at their car and ended up killing Mrs. Luizzo. The members of the KKK were quickly found and convicted 10 years in prison due to civil rights violations.
This is a poor quality picture of the three men including Michael Schwerner found dead and buried in a farm house.



Part Two:
In the short chapter Enemies the theme of irony stood out the most. You have two soldiers, fighting on the same side of the war who are in an argument over a knife. Jensen thinking Strunk stole his Knife. These soldiers along with the rest are in the chaotic Vietnam War. In the other shorter chapter Friends, the theme of irony is present as well. Strunk and Jensen made the pact that if one person gets hurt, the other will put them out of their misery. This was the deal until Strunk's leg got blown off. Jensen didn't follow through primarily due to Strunk begging. However, when Jensen found out Strunk had died, he was relieved. In the longer chapter How to tell a true war story, the writing stood out to me most during the story telling of Curt Lemons death. Especially when they had to remove parts of his body from the tree then calling it a "lemon tree." How can the soldiers be so comical while they're literally picking their friend piece by piece out of a tree? Is this there way of coping? They made this part of text calm and unspecified with details yet when they mentioned the buffalo, everything appeared to be much darker. That is what I find perplexing in this chapter.

Exploration Four: Making Sense of the 60s: Gabby Biliran


James Farmer, co-founder and director of the Congress of Racial Equality, was born in 1920 to his mother, a teacher, and his father James Farmer Sr., a minister who also happened to be the first African American citizen to earn a doctorate in the state. A studious person, Farmer followed in his father's footsteps and went to college, where he learned about Mahatma Ghandi and peaceful protests.  He founded CORE because of a sit in that he and his friends participated in at a chicago diner. This was only the start of him challenging segregation. Then he started the freedom rides, bus protests to challenge segregation even more. Farmer was a close friend to Martin Luther King Jr. and helped him fight segregation. For his work, he received the Medal of Freedom from Bill Clinton. James Farmer died on July 9, 1999 at the age of 79.
From the discussion of Ain't Scared of your Jails, I learned that the 60s were a trying time. It was not a peaceful place, and everyone was fending for themselves based on their race. In the documentary, Ben West said "Peace, quiet, and good order will be maintained in our city to the best of our ability," however it was clear to see that this was not easy.

James Farmer is the man to the direct left of MLK
In "Church," it is explained that monks offered the american soldiers help, but that it is an ironic gesture since American soldiers were often terrible towards innocent civilians in Vietnam. In "The Man I killed," it talks about how O' Brien's guilt is so overwhelming to the victim. Both these themes stood out the most to me because it completely contradicts each other in the treatment the soldiers had to people. 




Exploration four - Lauren Cobb

The Nashville sit-ins of the civil rights movement are regarded as one of history's most successful peaceful protests. The movement was organized by the Nashville Student Movement, an organization of students from Nashville's four African American colleges, and renowned pacifist James M. Lawson. Plans for the sit-ins began in late 1959 and Lawson offered workshops to train the students in techniques of discipline and self control. At first the sit-ins elicited little reaction, but soon police officers began arresting the students. However, with each wave of arrests, another wave of students took their place. The sit-ins continued until the bombing of Z. Alexander Looby's house. Looby was a black lawyer who  represented the arrested students. The bombing prompted a march on city all in which mayor Ben West declared sympathy for the movement. The city was desegregated on May 10, 1960. The sit-ins' success is a testament to the effectiveness of peaceful protest. In the documentary "Ain't scared of your Jails" it was stated, "gangs of toughs were gathering downtown. The students sat in as planned. The police did nothing to protect them. The students remained true to their training in nonviolence." The students' resolve, self control and dignity was inspirational and surely contributed to the movement's success.

imgres.jpg
Black students sit in seats at a restaurant designated for whites

"The Dentist" tells a story about Curt Lemon, who was boisterous about is bravery until he fainted when faced with a dentist. He was so embarrassed that he prompted the dentist to pull a perfectly good tooth in order to redeem himself. I believe this speaks to the pressure that these men felt to personify the ideal soldier and their fear of the embarrassment of failing to do so. The author supports this by describing Lemon's smile after proving himself.

"Sweetheart of the song Tra Bong." describes the story of a soldier who brought his girlfriend to Vietnam. She became intoxicated by the country and the war and eventually disappeared into the wilderness. The story teller, Rat Kiley, comments that the story proved how war affects and changes people. Even women, who are only thought of as sweet and innocent, can be corrupted. The author's dialogue at this point is very effective in making his point.

Exploration Four from Dathan

Part One:
One of the key things that I saw through the discussion and film was how determined these people were. They saw an that something was unnatural and started a movement to change it. The first freedom ride at first seen as a failure, they were beaten and the nation saw this. But others saw that if the rides would stop, then not only would they gain no ground but they could have very well lost some. 

"You know, if the Freedom Ride had been stopped as a result of violence, I strongly felt that the future of the movement was going to be just cut short because the impression would have been given that whenever a movement starts, that all that has to be done is that you attack it with massive violence and the blacks would stop."
                                                                                                            - Diane Nash

Knowing that the same thing would most likely happen to them, they boarded buses, were beaten, did not resist and continued this process. It took a guts to board a bus knowing that they could be beaten, hospitalized or even die. It took something else entirely to do all of that without fighting back. Not many things will change without the determination to help push them along.

"You can't separate peace from freedom because no one
can be at peace unless he has freedom"      - Malcolm X

Whenever I hear the name Malcolm X, I think, "what does the 'X' stand for." The X is a place holder for his lost tribal family name. Malcolm would become a minister and the national spokesperson for the Nation of Islam, NOI. He used radio, television and newspapers to communicate the NOI's message to the United State. He was seen as charismatic and was credited for the bringing the NOI's number of members from only 500 to 30,000 in a little over 10 years. Malcolm spoke of action. “Concerning nonviolence, it is criminal to teach a man not to defend himself when he is the constant victim of brutal attacks." In most cases I would agree with him on that, defending yourself is instinctual. Through nonviolence, the aggressors appeared to be the monsters, which brought support to the equal rights movement. I think if we followed Malcolm's thought of "by any means necessary" things would have been much bloodier and their might still be more of a divide between whites and blacks.

Part Two:
One of the things that I noticed through the chapter "Enemies" is how the fear of the unknown, usually, trumps the fear of what we do know. Once Strunk came back, Jensen became paranoid. He, Jensen, had broken Strunk's nose, he was expecting that something would be coming his way. They were in hostile territory, but after a while Jensen worried more about what Strunk was planning than enemy traps. He lost sleep, became isolated, and wouldn't turn his back to Strunk. I guess that paranoia Jensen had was Strunk's payback, in a way.

I like how nearing the end of the chapter "How to Tell a True War Story" the points O'Brien was making about generalizing about war seemed contradictory.

"War is hell, but that's not the half of it, because war is also mystery and terror and adventure and courage and discovery and holiness and pity and despair and longing and love. War is nasty; war is fun. War is thrilling; was is drudgery. War makes you a man; war makes you dead."

Something that stood out was how he said, often if it is believable it is a lie and if it is unbelievable it is closer to the truth. Sometimes when telling a story people would downplay it to make it more believable, but life can often be crazy and unbelievable.

Exploration 4 from JD Davis

During the discussion of Ain’t Scared of Your Jails I learned how effective non-violent protesting is.  For example, the sit ins on restaurants in Nashville at the time.  They were brutally attacked and screamed at yet they never fought back.  That took a lot of character.  Also, I learned that an economic protest or boycott is a very effective way to get the attention of big corporations and the government.  As said by one of the protestors “you have to hit them where it counts, their pocket book”.  What I will take away most from this film is just because something is normal in society doesn’t mean its right.  Many white communities honestly believed segregation was the right thing to do.  It was the popular opinion but as we obviously know now it was the wrong one. 
               Ben West was the mayor of Nashville from 1951- 1963 which happened to be the time of the civil rights movement in Nashville.  Many college students organized sit ins in Nashville Tennessee which brought a lot of controversy in the south.  Ben West came out and openly said he supports the desegregation of restaurants in Nashville.  This was huge for the movement to have the support of the mayor.  Soon after this the public facilities in Nashville were desegregated.  Ben west was quoted saying, “I appeal to all citizens to end discrimination, to have no bigotry, no bias, no discrimination,”.   Nashville was the first major city in the south to be desecrated thanks to the students of the sit ins and mayor Ben West.

               The major themes I noticed in enemies is how the stress of war can make you upset at anyone.  Even though you are fighting the war against another country you were also fighting a mental war.  The stress of war can have you so frustrated that you might attack your own unite.  This was shown in this chapter.  In the chapter “sweetheart of the song tra bong” the main theme is that it makes the thought of a female companion feel real again to these soldiers.  A lot of these men write to women and it seems like such a fantasy to be with them and when an actual girl shows up its makes it feel real.  It also makes the Vietnamese people seem like real people as well.  I say this because she embraces their culture which shows they have culture.  Having cultural makes them feel like real people and not just the enemy we must kill.


Exploration 4 from Grant Davison

Part One

     I learned about how the movements in the south, especially Nashville, were very critical to how someone during this time period thought about segregation. Many college students and their families were affected and they had to deal with the pain. One thing I will definitely take away from the film is the amount of pride and passion there was in the sit ins, jails, and freedom rides. People would do anything to be heard and in the jails they sang to the point where they had their beds taken away. One quote I had regarding to the way the people thought about these protests was that Leo Lillard said "Why is segregation still even needed, or valid anymore?"This was very early in the video and before the freedom rides and Jail time.

     In my research on how CORE (Congress Of Racial Equality) affected black lives during this time, I found that CORE was one of the "big four" civil rights organizations during this time along with SCLC, SNCC, and NAACP.  In 1963, CORE helped organize the march on Washington which includes the end of the march where Martin Luther King Jr. made his "I have a dream" Speech.
CORE Logo






Part Two

     For the first story I picked the short story "Enemies". I felt that a theme that stood out to me was the theme of pressure and worry. This was a stressful war for all of them and i think it took such a toll on Jensen that he no longer could relax. He had to worry about his surroundings while also fighting a war, gun shots blazing. Jensen probably felt the need to not mess up by taking his eyes of Strunk but in total he didn't need to watch him at all. I felt the writing was at its best on page 60 in the middle of the page. He talks about how Jensen couldn't relax and his strategies for watching Strunk. One thing I was wondering was why Strunk didn't have his other troops help them sit down and talk, obviously he didn't want to fight with him, so they should've resolved the problem earlier.

     The long story I choose was "How to Tell a True War Story" Because this story showed strong thoughts about moral. O'Brien Talks about how people don't understand the true terror of war. People should feel any bit good from a true war story because I doubt you will get the whole story, just the good and uplifting parts.  I felt this writing was best on the top of page 66 where he talks about the sadness and the way he thinks about saying cooze. He puts so much into a letter and he feels like he gets nothing from it, while he is fighting a war.





Exploration Four:Amanda Gifford


Part one:
        What I learned is fear wasn't only in the activist's it was in the community and the atmosphere.  The first march included 4,000 students which was known as the silence of the feet because this was all observers heard.   The commitment of the protesters was evident when one of the Freedom Writers was hospitalized and interviewed.  He was a Caucasian man who was beaten and continued to hold to his beliefs and willing to die for the cause.  One of the main students, Diane Nash stated, "You know, if the Freedom Ride had been stopped as a result of violence, I strongly felt that the future of the movement was going to be just cut short because the impression would have been given that whenever a movement starts, that all that has to be done is that you attack it with massive violence and the blacks would stop."

     The purpose of the Freedom Riders was to bring awareness to segregation of Interstate bus terminals. The 13 Riders consisted of 6 Caucasians and 7 African Americans. Not all of the Freedom Riders were college students such as Albert Bigelow who was a Navy Veteran from WWII. They planned on May 17 as the day to celebrate the Brown V. Board of Education’s seventh anniversary in New Orleans, Louisiana. This case made segregation within the public school system unconstitutional. During their ride on May 14th, the first bus upon reaching Anniston, Alabama the participants were met by a mob which followed them until their bus tires blew. The riders were faced with beatings from the mob surrounding their bus. A bomb was thrown from the mob into the bus causing it to erupt into a flaming metal skeleton. The second bus which was traveling to Birmingham, Alabama, protesters were also met by a mob and beaten. The Commissioner posted a statement that the riders were not protected by the police due to the fact that it was Mother’s Day. Pictures of the events the riders faced were published across the country receiving international attention regarding the issue of segregation.


The route the Freedom Riders traveled.

Part Two:
         In the short story The Dentist, Tim O’ Brien takes a moment to characterize Curt Lemon, “He had a tendency to play the tough soldier role.” This quote foreshadows his actions later in the chapter.  An Army dentist flew into their camp to do examinations.  Curt appeared nervous and hesitant about having an examination. He told them, “Back in high school he’d had a couple of bad experiences with dentists. Real sadism.” When it was his turn he ended up passing out before it even started. Embarrassed by his actions he pesters the dentist to fix his “toothache” till he pulls out a tooth. He had his moment of redemption and seemed proud to keep up his role.


       In How to Tell a True War Story, Mitchell Sanders tells Tim O’ Brien about a group of men that goes up into the mountains to listen for the enemy. Within this story he describes how the silence creates noise of its own. “The trees talk politics, the monkeys talk religion. The whole country. Vietnam. The place talks. It talks. Understand? Nam-it truly talks.” The men radio in camp for air strikes. Afterwards all the noise is gone and everything turns to silence.  Sanders later explains that he exaggerated to get him to really listen. The moral of his story was to really listen closely to your surroundings.
        



        

Exploration 4 by Paige Riebel

PART 1 :
Ain't Scared of Your Jails? was a very compelling and beautifully filmed video on how our country came to the place we stand today. Through the raw images and vulnerable testimonies, the flavor of emotion and moving independence was all throughout this hour documentary. After watching, I felt a deeper sense of respect and admiration for those who fought so patiently and passionately for what they knew they wanted to attain. Although I knew that integrating segregation was a lofty task, the video seemed to introduce and portray the struggle of this integration in a way that was new and sensitive to me. Early on in the video, it's stated that "Until boycotts began, segregation was a norm. The boycotting forced society to question whether or not segregation was moral." It's crazy to me to think that it took pure uproar and years of fighting to finally come a breaking point on the issue of segregation. Whites gladly owned the position of first class and were bound to this entitled placement. When the blacks began to push this boundary, all the whites knew as every day routine came crumbling and it forced them to review why they believed they were "superior" in their minds. As a whole, society's mentality was brutally confused and their mindsets concerning humanity and people was insensitive and unequal.

Stokely Carmichael, also known as Kwame Ture, was very involved in the Civil Rights movement and also was the leader of SNCC and Black Panthers. Carmichael was also a participant in the Freedom Rides lead by CORE and was one of the survivors of the harsh treatment given while in imprisonment for his peaceful protests. Carmichael lived most of his life in Harlem, New York. In high school, he was involved in the Morris Park Duke group, where he was the only black student member. In this gang group, he was introduced to alcohol and small theft which he grew to love. He became more serious about education and dropped his alcohol and theft habits, when he got accepted and enrolled in Howard University, a historically black school in Washington D.C. While in college he was then known as not a gang boy, but one of the most passionate and charismatic men on campus. He took the lead of the Treasurer of the Liberal Arts Council and also became extremely involved in the campus activist group, where he then went on to participate in the sit-ins and lead some of the other nonviolent protests.  

Image result

PART 2:
What struck me most interesting in the long story"How to Tell a True War Story" was the last paragraph written. It says, "And in the end, of course, a true war story is never about war. It's about sunlight. It's about the special way that dawn spreads out on the river when you know you must cross the river and march into the mountains and do things you are afraid to do. It's about love and memory. It's about sorrow. It's about sister who never wrote back and people who never listen." I think this passage completely encapsulates the whole gist of not only the chapter, but also the book. This whole book is on war and all it entails and I think this simple yet profound passage beautifully summarizes O'Brien's true feelings and inner thoughts towards his experiences in the war. 
"Dave Jensen and Lee Strunk did not become instant buddies, but they did learn to trust each other." was the quote that I found the most meaningful in the short story "Friends." This short sentence bears great meaning about the war. It shows that every man was trying to emotionally cope independently. but also trying to physically find trust even if the emotional aspect did not exist. It shows that war was not a petty, friendship time, but instead it was a vulnerable and "life on the edge" ordeal. Friendship was a bonus, but "keeping each other alive" buddies were what mattered the most to those in the war zone. 






Wednesday, September 28, 2016

Exploration Four: Making sense of the 60's + Black Panthers, Kitties with some sharp claws by Matthew George

From our discussion in class I learned a great deal about the lack of trust that-although is a prevalent aspect of our current country-is also an element of the 1960's as well. The freedom of information act has done a great deal to bring to light the less than stellar report card America keeps hiding from the parental guardian who needs to see it. From this film and discussion I will take away the fact that despite how morally wrong an injustice is: the perspective from which it is viewed determines the reaction people will have to it. As an example plaguing our modern day, some people could say mass shootings are not a bad thing-if they were we would have banned assault rifles by now (I'm going to end up on a watch list for having typed this aren't I?), whereas anyone who looks at a mass shooting through the general perspective is going to be thinking how absolutely horrible and tragic it is and why is no one doing anything to try and quell future shootings by banning the sale of assault weapons. Likewise with the film and Ben West's quote:

"They asked me some pretty soul-searching questions. And one that was addressed to me as a man, and I tried as best I could to answer it frankly and honestly, that I could not agree that it was morally right for someone to sell them merchandise and refuse them service. And I had to answer it just exactly that way.

Of course, I received considerable criticism for it, but had I to answer it again, I would answer it in the same way again because it was a moral question and it was one that a man has to answer and not a politician."

Here we see a prime example of that: If he had been asked that as a politician what would he have said? Something along the lines that was not his own view, rather a view held by an amorphous blob of individuals trying harder to obtain votes than they will to keep the promises they have already made when they enter office. However as a man, Ben West answers the question with his own belief, a belief not directed at whether or not it is morally wrong to sell merchandise or refuse service to people of darker skin specifically, but because it is morally wrong to sell merchandise or refuse service to someone simply by the color of their skin.



Unlike peaceful protesters without anything to defend themselves with, most would probably think twice before trying to assault a guy with a loaded shotgun.
J. Edgar Hoover, head of the FBI during this era once called a party formed by two American college students "The greatest threat to internal security for the country". Clad in black leather jackets and beret's: The Black Panthers were one of the answers of the time that didn't rely on peaceful protests but instead were a military force who carried live weapons in the name of self-defense. Duties of being a Black Panther included: Patrolling black neighborhoods to defend their black siblings against violence, running community service programs such as free breakfasts, and of course working with activists promoting equality (interesting thing to note is that they worked with activists of any skin color, including groups composed of white individuals.) However the Black Panthers unfortunately suffered in their later years from a wide range of issues, internal, external, and legal, that eventually led to their decline and disbanded in 1981.

"Black Panther Party Founded." Welcome to "Voices that Guide Us" Personal Narratives. Web. 28 Sept 2016. http://www.aaregistry.org/historic_events/view/black-panther-party-founded

Baggins, Brian. "Black Panther Party." Black Panther Party. Web. 28 Sept. 2016. https://www.marxists.org/history/usa/workers/black-panthers/

Moving onto The Things They Carried, the Stockings chapter demonstrates the belief in the unknown one of the corners of the trifecta revolving around science and nature. The unknown, otherwise known as superstition is a powerful idea in that it can make even a regular everyday object (in this case the Pantyhose) into an object of divine creation, able to spread belief and strength into it's followers even in times of desperation. Superstition of such strength can be the sole reason for people to continue on despite the worst. The more dumb luck an individual experiences the more likely they are to believe the object in question is of such mystical power. In Dobbins case I would say one of the  strongest parts about this tiny chapter is how it gives a reason why he is fighting in the war: to protect his girlfriend-however from how much the pantyhose has seemingly protected him, despite the breakup (Which by the way is one of the greatest jerk moves you could do to your soldier boyfriend risking his very life on enemy territories so YOU as an individual don't have to fight yourself) The history Dobbins has with the pantyhose transcends the belief that it is his girlfriend protecting him, thus he is able to continue fighting on with the blessed talisman despite a loss in reason for fighting.

Parallels, equal halves representing two opposing ideals where neither is necessarily a "wrong" ideal such as chaos and order. A theme often associated with my own written work (referred to as 'The Ideology of Two Fates' in my work), and presents itself as an aspect surrounding main focus of the long chapter "The Man I Killed". Here we have Tim O' Brien, along with the corpse of a Vietnamese man, Both were people who did not wish to fight but were dragged into a war despite their desires. In the end, a person not unlike the character Tim O'Brien was killed as a result of this war. Specifically what makes this such a powerful chapter as a whole is how the Author-Tim  continually repeats the image of the corpse with such detail that it's hard not to picture what he looks like as his history-the history that defines this person not a monster or an enemy in a war, but rather an individual who had a life that was interrupted by a struggle between two countries. In the end what did this man die for, a countries ideology? The warped and changed philosophical teachings of a long dead individual? Words are marks imprinted on a surface, nothing more than that-yet they are but one of many reasons individuals kill each other, taking life that is irreplaceable. You know in hindsight I wrote all this to then only realized that I actually don't know if the assignment was to write about the chapters up to the Song Tra Bong or up to The Man I Killed Chapter...heres hoping it was for the The Man I Killed.

Exploration Four Matthew Johnson

Part one:
     What impacted me about Ain't Scared of Your Jails was the simplicity and determination of it all. It was simple in that there were no complicated motives behind the movement. No political agenda. No conflict between what was willing to be lost for the gain. They know what they were willing to lose -- their lives and physical security was of no object in comparison to their freedom. We see this in Frederick Leonard's interaction in the jail --
    
 "Peewee came down on my head, man, whonk, whonk. He was crying. Peewee was crying. I still had my mattress. And that's when I -- You remember when your parents used to whip you and say, "It's going to hurt me more than it hurt you?" Hurt Peewee more than it hurt me."

     Leonard's almost humorous account shows us what mindset he was in. He wasn't in jail. He was on the pedestal of his cause. 


Image result for ben west
Ben West, Mayor of Nashville, Tennessee 
     Ben West acted as Senate in Nashville from 1949-1951. During this time he cultivated a solid relationship with the black community. During his time in his Senate years West brought back single member district elections, vastly improving black's voting power. 

     Ben West was voted in as Mayor in 1951. After the city hall march-in West appointed a biracial commission to desegregate lunch counters, which was the first southern state to do so. 
    
     Ben West lost the following election as Mayor in 1963 and retired directly after the loss. 


Part Two:
     The theme in Enemies and Friends, collectively, stood out to me. "Hatred is much closer to love than indifference" went through my mind while reading it. Hatred causes strict observance in an otherwise complacent relationship. This causes you to get to know them better than most any other setting. Strunk and Jensen kept close tabs on each other and began to get to know the other person better without intending to do so. 
     I would like to know for how long interaction took place. Was it for most of the war? We see that, over a month's time, they began to invest in one another, but what was the recovery time after the hatred? 
I think the writing was at its best where the interaction take place between Strunk and Jensen, after Strunk stepped on the mortar. This convention, dialogue, between the two hows a tenderness, a willingness to lie for the comfort of the other, to no gain for yourself. 
     In "How to Tell a War Story" the theme that stood out to me was that if a war story is pleasing, it wasn't a real story. There is no moral. "In a true war story, if there is any moral at all, it is like the thread that makes the clothe. You can't tease it out. You can't extract the meaning without unraveling the deeper meaning. And in the end, really, there isn't much you can say about a war story except, maybe, "oh". I felt that this part of the chapter was well written. I wonder what category O'Brien would put his book in. No moral at all? Or an unwinding moral?        

Tuesday, September 27, 2016

Exploration 4 from Kirsten

From our discussions, I learned a lot more about the video. I learned that the sit-ins were mainly used to create a stir so that they could hopefully make the entire act more widespread. There was no violence for around two weeks when they first started the sit-ins, but then police finally became involved by removing the students that were at the sit-ins. Bernie Schweid says accurately in the video,"Most people did not take the sit-ins too seriously at the beginning," but once they realized that the students did have a cause, the news spread rapidly. Many other acts such as peaceful marches and freedom rides were also used to help black rights become more well known and to make an impact on society so that things would change. Personally I would take away from this how important it is to stand up (or sit down) for something you believe in. Without the drive and determination of all of the people involved in the freedom rights acts, nothing would have changed and we might still be in the closed-minded society that existed back in the 60's.

I researched Robert Kennedy, and found that in 1954, he joined the Senates permanent Subcommittee on Investigations as chief counsel for the Democratic minority. He wanted to help minorities gain equal rights and gave a speech to South African students pertaining to this goal. He managed his brothers campaign in 1960 and after John Kennedy was elected, Robert Kennedy became his U.S. attorney general and closest cabinet adviser. In 1968, five years after his brother was assassinated, Robert Kennedy ran for president against Eugene McCarthy, and was assassinated after his victory speech at the Ambassador Hotel in L.A.
Robert Kennedy announces MLK's death in a 1968 speech

For the short story, I chose the chapter Enemies. In this chapter, there seemed to be themes of underlying tension between the men in the group as well as some trust issues and deception. I found this to be strange since these men have already been through so much together, I wouldn't have thought they would have trust issues or want to blame/steal others items. Two of the men, Dave Jensen and Lee Strunk get into a fight because Jensen thinks Strunk has stolen his jackknife. He breaks Strunk's nose and is very concerned afterwards that Strunk may try to get back at him. In order to avoid this, Jensen breaks his own nose with a borrowed pistol and claims that they are even. I found that the writing was at its most powerful when the author describes how Jensen was "fighting two wars", the actual war and the war in his head against Struck. One question I have is why didn't Jensen just talk to Struck and apologize instead of worrying for a whole week and finally breaking his own nose to "settle the score"?

For the long story, I chose Sweetheart of the Song Tra Bong. In this chapter, there seems to be strong ideas of the Vietnamese world and the American world in comparison. The author shows these differences in a story where a man has his elementary sweetheart come to his relatively safe quarters for his comfort only to have her embrace the Vietnamese culture and eventually leave him. I found that the writing was at its best when the author was describing Mary Anne in the night with the "greenies". He had very descriptive detail that held the readers attention and made you feel like you could smell the scents he was describing. One question I have is why did Mary Anne think that what she was doing wasn't bad?

Exploration 4 Malcolm X by Joe Campanella

Part 1.
The video and discussions provided me a brief overview of some of the courageous young men and women willing to give their lives for their cause. Segregation, especially in the deep south, was a major problem and a threat to the justice of African-Americans and minorities all throughout the country. Freedom rides, sit-ins, and bus-boycotts all played a major role in putting the spotlight on the horrors of segregation. These brave young men and women used non-violent tactics and would give up everything they had to see segregation and racism end. Some would even go to prison if they had to. In the film, "Ain't Scared of Your Jails", Frederick Leonard describes his experiences in prison for peacefully protesting against injustice. He says in an interview, "So we did a lot of singing, praying too, but a lot of singing. And the guards just couldn't understand how we could be happy." Despite going to jail, the protesters knew what they were doing was right. They also knew that change was coming.
Malcolm X was an African-American leader and Muslim during the Civil Rights Movement. He believed in black nationalism and joined the Nation of Islam. His movement and teachings were considered radical in relation to Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. He believed in liberating the oppressed "by any means necessary", including violence. After converting to the Muslim faith, Malcolm X joined a group called the Nation of Islam. A group that promotes black pride and self-reliance in society. Malcolm X and the leader of the Nation of Islam, Elijah Muhammad became close and Malcolm ultimately became a spokesman and minister of the organization. Malcolm X ends up splitting with the Nation of Islam due to political indifferences. He then converts to traditional Islam after realizing that Muslims of all races should strive for peace and anti-separatism. The Nation of Islam ultimately assassinates him after he changed his beliefs from radicalism to peace and coexistence.

Part 2.
In the short chapter "Friends", of the novel "The Things They Carried", Lee Strunk and Dave Jensen have made a pact to work together after the incident with the fistfight. They both learn to trust each other in the perils of combat. But the pact they both agreed to, entails that if one gets seriously injured, the other will kill to put him out of his misery. Towards the end of the chapter, Strunk gets his leg blown off and is in serious condition. When Strunk is carried away into the chopper, Jensen is relieved to know that he had died. This is powerful to me because they are on the same side of battle, yet despise each other so much. The author clearly depicts that wartime is chaos and destruction and that it can be very hard to determine morality and character.
In the longer chapter "How to Tell a True War Story", O'Brien tells us that a true war story is not moral and not to believe one that seems moral. O'Brien states that a true war story's moral cannot be separated from the story itself. The part of the chapter that stood out to me was what he felt when he entered a firefight. He describes the fear of death but also a strong sense of life. O'Brien uses the term "balance" of emotions between feeling very alive and a fear of dying.

Exploration 4 from Phillip Wolf

Part One:
Through our discussions I learned a lot more about the hardships that protesters as well as normal people faced during the 60s. It resonated with me that people from almost every walk of life stood up for what they believed in and tried to stop the injustice. A quote that I noted during the video was when one of the narrators said the movement was "not looking for negros, but for American citizens interested in democracy". I thought that this quote really showed that they were not only "black" protests, but protests for all.

The topic from the video that I chose to research was Elijah Muhammad. During the 60s Muhammad was the leader of a group called the Nation of Islam, whose goal was to improve the spiritual, mental, social, and economic condition of African Americans in the US. As the leader of the group, Muhammad was able to attract nearly 30,000 thanks to Malcolm X, a famous figure who had quickly risen through the ranks. Muhammad's teachings in the NOI consisted of his own versions of Muslim scripture, saying blacks were the 'original' humans and labeling whites as 'evil'. Muhammad also preached the goal of the NOI to return the 'predominant superiority' of blacks across America. Many of Muhammad's teachings appealed to poor, young black males, and Muhammad embraced this by purchasing land and businesses for housing and employment of said young black males. His abstract teachings however lead to disagreements with Malcolm X, possibly the most notable member of the Nation of Islam. Muhammad also received criticism for using funds from the NOI to support his estimated 21 children, whom he had with at least five different woman.

Muhammad speaking with Malcolm X. A rift with Muhammad is said to be the reason X left the NOI.

Part Two:
How to Tell a True War Story:
I found this passage from the book very interesting. I enjoyed the different stories that O'Brien told in this passage because I have always enjoyed reading books about war. I found the theme of this passage interesting as well because it seemed that he liked to say that a true war story didn't actually have to be the truth. They didn't have to be about war, they were about experiences, and things that war led to. A quote in the chapter that stood out to me was "Though it's odd, you're never more alive than when you're almost dead". Another part I liked was when Rat Kiley wrote to his dead friends sister and she didn't reply, and he just kept calling her a "dumb cooze" even though there were so many other things he could've called her.

The Dentist:
This passage was very short but I thought that it did a good job of showing human nature, or at least the nature of men. Curt Lemon was deathly scared of dentists and had no shame in telling his comrades that he did not want to be checked out. When he did, he passed out and made himself look a bit like a wuss. After, he faked a toothache and practically forced the dentist to pull out a tooth. I liked this because it shows the reluctance for us to be made to look weak. This idea is especially prevalent in war, and is shown in other parts of the book. I thought this passage exemplified that idea and showed it in a much more innocent way than the men being brave in combat to show their masculinity.

Nick Sansone Exploration 4 part 1 and 2: Making Sence of the 60's


Part 1:

Personally, I didn’t learn much from Ain't Scared of Your Jails because I was previously educated on the topic. Although, it did enhance the seriousness of the events that strung out during the 60's. the thing that struck me the most from the film was that the government knew what was going on and they knew what was going to happen, and yet they did absolutely nothing about it. Burke Marshall says in the film "The FBI had information, it turns out, that was quite specific about what was going to happen in Birmingham. They might have had some more information about what was going to happen in Anniston, but I'm not sure of that. But they clearly had advance information from Klan sources that the Freedom Riders were going to be attacked in the bus station at Birmingham, and that the Birmingham police were going to absent themselves and not do anything to protect the rioters. The Bureau knew that. The Bureau didn't pass that information along to anybody in any other part of the department." Freedom riders were civil rights activists who rode interstate busses all through the south to protest segregation laws. Freedom riders weren't just African American's, there was also a large population of whites in the groups helping the cause. Freedom riders would take interstate busses through some of the most extremely segregated towns in the south sometimes sitting whites nest to blacks or while whites sat in the back of the bus, and blacks sat in the front of the bus. Once they reached their destination, they would exit the bus, and into the waiting areas where they would continue the protest. Whites would sit in the black's waiting room and vise versa. This caused major uproar in the south and most of the time the freedom riders were met with fierce and angry mobs that would do everything from verbally abuse to physically beat the freedom riders while no one did a thing to stop it.


 Image result for freedom riders













Part 2:

The Dentist

In this chapter, Curt Lemon, who is know as a crazy man that can pull off some wild stuff in combat is deathly afraid of the dentist when the tall skinny captain with bad breath is flown in for a check up on the soldiers. So afraid that he actually faints as soon as he steps into the tent where the dentist is waiting for him. Curt was so embarrassed by this, later in the evening he goes down to see the man and tells him he has  horrible tooth ach. A killer one. After the dentist finding nothing to be wrong, Curt Lemon forces the man to pull out his perfectly good tooth. The reason I chose to talk abut this chapter was because a warrior who puffs himself up a lot and has done some things to get the label of crazy, is deathly afraid of the dentist. Not death or even injury, but the dentist, who is only there for a check up on the guys.

Sweetheart of The Song Tra Bong

In this chapter, it takes us to a medical outpost far up in the mountains where there "really isn't a war". The men up there start to talk about how easy it would be to bring a girl up there. Mark Fossie actually does something about it. After a letter and waiting for 6 weeks, his girlfriend shows up on a helicopter and some supplies. All goes well until she starts to become curious about the special ops soldiers or greenies and the surrounding wilderness. She starts to go out into the rain forest with them, and eve goes on ambushes with them without a weapon. Mark decided to talk her down and they decide to get married. After talking everything over and going over all of their plans for it, she still decides to go out into the rain forest. One night, the men waited outside of her hut to go in and talk to her. Hearing tribal music, the men became confused. They entered the room only to see objects for Vietnamese culture, candles, and even the head of a leopard. Surrounded by all of this is his girlfriend Mary Anne, who has a necklace made of human tongues. She insists what has happened isn't bad, and that he wouldn’t understand Vietnam in the sheltered camp. The two major themes I picked up out of this chapter is that war can and will completely change someone. Mary Anne came from Cleveland Heights and had no idea what it was like outside of it. Once she got to Vietnam and experienced the rain forest and the intensity of war, she completely changed. The author is also trying to convey the worlds difference in life back in the states and Vietnam. The author tells us this story to make us realize how hard it truly was in a time of war. Especially in a place like Vietnam where everything you have known or are used to is completely different. To me, the writing was at its best when Mark discovered his girlfriend had turned into a complete whack job and has decorated the room with candles and a leopards head. I was completely paying attention to the book and what he was saying because I wanted to know the state Mary Anne was in. 

Exploration 4- Pauleina May

From watching the video I learned that White Americans in that time were very selfish in a way. This is my opinion but in the beginning of the video they had an interview with a white lady and she was telling a story about a black person coming into the restaurant to eat. The black person did nothing wrong he went and sat where he was suppose to and this lady said that "him being there affected her". I personalty thought it had nothing to do with her, but I'm from a different time and I accept any race. What i will take from this video is a better understanding of segregation and what happened to the everyone who was involved.
The KKK also known as the Ku Klux Klan was a white supremacist organization that started in 1870. Throughout its time factions of secret fraternal organization have used acts of terrorism; they used murder, lynching, arson, rape, and bombing, to oppose the granting of civil rights to African Americans. Deriving its membership from native-born, white protestant U.S. citizens, the KKK has also been anti Semitic and catholic, and has opposed the immigration of all and does not view as "racially pure".  The KKK was also called White Brotherhood, Heroes of America, Constitutional Union Guards, and Invisible Empire.

This when Chicago was welcoming the KKK.
In the story Sweetheart of the Song Tra Bong the whole story of Mary and Mark made me think. They were elementary sweethearts and they were in love to the point they were engaged. Then in the blink of an eye she was gone and he never saw her again, it just makes you think how could things change so fast in a relationship. Today I feel this has been a common thing with relationships, they are sometimes not taken seriously. The other story I choose was Friends. The thing that stuck out to me the most was when they talked about if one gets wounded the other will kill him to put him out of his misery. Strunk gets his legs blown off and Jensen doesn't do what they talked about. This stuck to me because we can talk about doing something but when we are actually living that situation its hard to keep our word. This is where the writing was most powerful to me.






Josh Salyers Exploration 4: The 60s and Z Alexander Looby

Z Alexander Looby was one of the first practicing black lawyers in the south during the 20s and 30s, earning a B.A. degree from Howard University and a law degree from Colombia U. A successful lawyer in his will to change desegregation, he filed lawsuits against Nashville public school shortly following the Brown vs Board of Education case, as well as sponsoring 23 African Americans charged with murder following race riots. All were acquitted . He worked NAACP, and defended many African Americans and continued to serve as a desegregation lawyer heading into the 1960s. He became a gratus attorney for the students involved in peaceful protest sit ins, which eventually led to his house being dynamited shortly after. He was deeply involved in politics, and narrowly lost a bid to the Tennessee Supreme Court in 1962, but was a Nashville City Council member until retiring in 1971
 Image result for z alexander looby house bombinghouse following bombing

Image result for z alexander looby house bombingLooby

Part 2: In "The Dentist" the theme of enduring suffering to portray bravery is what stood out the most to me. Curt Lemon purposely gets his perfectly fine tooth yanked out to show his comrades that he is no longer scared of the dentist, and that he has overcome his act of fainting with a prominent display of manliness. The writing was the best when O' Brien says "He fainted even before the man touched him" (83). I question and can't understand the extent of desperation someone is driven to to show bravery, as seen in Lemon's healthy tooth being pulled.
In "Sweetheart of the Song Tra Bong" the theme of insanity struck me as outstanding. One of the soldier's girlfriends comes to Vietnam, and she eventually becomes more and more involved in the war, aiding and helping the soldiers. Eventually, she stops paying attention to her man and indulges in the war at all times, eventually disappearing into the mountains, never to return. O'Brien writes, "..when they were taken under fire, Mary Anne would stand quietly and watch tracer rounds snap by, a little smile at her lips..." (110). This powerful quote shows how war mentally tears down a human.

Exploration 4 from Desiree Dulay

Part I:
From our discussions, I learned that there were many influences that helped eliminate segregation in our country People such as Z Alexander Looby, Reverend CT Vivian, MLK, Malcolm X, and groups such as the black panthers and SNCC made tremendous impacts during the civil rights movement. During the Nashville sit ins, Looby defended those who were arrested to unite public areas. The SNCC or the "Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee" gave young African Americans the ability to voice their opinions in the civil rights movement. In the documentary, they described it as " SNCC was based on a new optimism, a feeling that youth could be a real force for change in the 1960s." They participated in the Freedom rides which was a protest to stop segregating buses. They also participated in non-violent marches which was led by Martin Luther King Jr. These young African Americans were mentally strong because they pain they were attacked emotionally and physically. 

Image result for SNCC
Part II:
In the chapter "Enemies", one theme or idea that stood out to me was that you cannot trust everyone, even those who are close to you. A question that i had was why was Jensen not willing to forgive Strunk? He was acting childish about the whole situation. Is there a reason why he was not willing to forgive him? Is he holding a grudge against him?
In the chapter "How to Tell a War story", I liked how he explains what a war story is. In this chapter, he says "In any war story, but especially a true one, it's difficult to separate what happened from what seemed to happen." (67). I feel that not only does this occur in war stories, but all stories too. When I hear someone telling a story, i sometimes feel that they are exaggerating and altering they story a little bit because they want to make it feel more exciting. Another quote that i thought was interesting was "In many cases, a true war story cannot be believed." (68). Again, this can be applied to every story. They may be telling the truth, however the audience may believe that it is exaggerated to a point where they story is unbelievable.